The World’s Biggest Oil Companies

Different criterions give you different rankings of the oil companies. Usually in this industry, the production and the reserve are the most useful factors to assess the companies. It is really difficult to tell the reserve a state-owned oil company have, usually which is regarded as top secret, sometimes even the oil company publicized its reserve but the figure was still not convincing1. In this following 2012 ranking of the world’s biggest is based on the combined volumes of oil and natural gas that these companies produce each day, which allows the comparison of private sector and state-owned oil companies.2, 3.


1. 2012 working interest production volumes calculated by Wood Mackenzie reflects oil plus the energy equivalent in natural gas2.

2. The unit of working interest production volumes is million barrels per day(mbpd).

3. The owners were listed in the parenthesis if a company is state-owned or a public company controlled by the government.

4. The Wikipedia pages of the companies have been hyperlinked.

Saudi Aramco(Saudi Arabia) 12.5 mbpd

Gazprom(Russia) 9.7 Mbps

National Iranian Oil Co.(Iran) 6.4 mbpd

ExxonMobil 5.3 mbpd

PetroChina 4.4 mbpd

BP 4.1 mbpd

Royal Dutch Shell 3.9 mbpd

Pemex(Mexico) 3.6 mbpd

Chevron 3.5 Mbps

Kuwait Petroleum Company 3.2 mbpd

Abu Dhabi National Oil Company(the United Arab Emirates) 2.9 mbpd

Sonatrach(Algeria) 2.7 mbpd

Total 2.7 mbpd

Petrobras(Brazil) 2.6 mbpd

Rosneft(Russia) 2.6 mbpd

Iraqi Oil Ministry(Iraq) 2.3 mbpd

Qatar Petroleum(Qatar) 2.3 mbpd

Lukoil 2.2 mbpd

Eni 2.2 mbpd

Statoil 2.1 mbpd

ConocoPhillips 2.0 mbpd

Petroleos de Venezuela(Venezuela) 1.9 mbpd

Sinopec 1.6 mbpd

Nigerian National Petroleum Company 1.4 mbpd

Petronas(Malaysia) 1.4 mbpd


1. WikiLeaks cables: Saudi Arabia cannot pump enough oil to keep a lid on prices.

2. The World’s 25 Biggest Oil Companies.

3. Petroleum Intelligence Weekly Ranks World’s Top 50 Oil Companies.


1000 Miles Drive(Part 1)

After I filled out the name of this post, I began to look for something related to the name and I found it is the same as the name of a piece of music by Jay Lumen. I am not going to talk about the song, actually pure music, but to tell the story that my friend and I drove 1000 miles from Missouri to New York.

In the evening of Jan. 12 2011, a friend of mine told me that another friend was going to relocate to New York by car. Then I discussed with him whether he could give me a drive. It was supposed that we should leave Rolla, MO after lunch on Jan. 14, actually we started the trip at 2:30 pm. I made a two-day trip plan. For the first day, I set three points, Terre Haute, IN, Indianapolis, IN, and Dayton, OH. I wished we could stop at the farthest point, Dayton, OH, where the National Museum of the USAF locates. If we could not reach Dayton on the first day, we had to stop at Harrisburg, PA. In the following picture, the blue line showed the route from Rolla, MO to New York City, NY.

Fig. 1 Route from Rolla, MO to New York City, NY

The first day’s drive was very smooth. My friend and I were surprised to see very few vehicles on the way from Rolla to St. Louis. Before the trip, both of us were concerning about the weather and road conditions after a snow. Maybe the same concern stuck others in their homes. When we reached the joint part between Missouri and Illinois, the traffic was some kind of bad. The fields covered by white snow out of the window made the drive very tedious. Sometimes, we listened to radio; sometimes we turned on the CD player to listen to some Chinese, Korean and Japanese songs. We stopped at the National Trail rest area for a while, where I read a friendly notice that riding on a train is much better than driving a car because of low carbon emission(That is not exactly the same expression, and my long-focus lense could not take a picture of the words).

Fig. 2 Icicles from Hills Besides I-44

Fig. 3 Gateway Arch, the Symbol of St. Louis

Fig. 4 Mac Arthur Bridge over Mississippi River Connects Two States

Fig. 5 A View of the MetroLink Passing through Illinois

Fig. 6 Snow-covered Hills inIllinois

Fig. 7 National Trail Rest Area on I-70 near Effingtham, IL

Mature Field

Today I am going to talk about mature field, which is not a new but development concept. The definition of this term varies with personnels. In Dr.Tayfun Babadagli’s review paper, Development of Mature Field-A Review, he defined three times. 1. The oil fields after a certain production period, which is very ambiguous; 2. The fields have reached the peak of their production or those producing fields in declining mode; 3. The fields have reached their economic limit after  primary and secondary recovery efforts1. Fig.1 shows the second definition of mature field, which was recommended by Halliburton. If the Mature Field in the typical production life of a field graph was replaced by Peak Production, after reaching Economic Limit the oilfield was regarded as mature field, that is the third definition Dr. Tayfun has given.

Fig. 1 Typical Production Life of a Field2.

Also, we have to talk about new fields and old fields here. Sometimes, mature field means old field. The two definitions are similar but not exactly the same. To simplify the problem here, most mature fields are old, but old fields may not be mature. Why? The economic limit is dynamic, due to the developments of technology, the production cost and the oil price.

As we know, during the primary recovery, reservoir drive comes from natural mechanisms3. Once the reservoir pressure is not high enough to drive the oil to the ground, external energy are needed to provide the drive to push or pull the oil from underground, such as water flooding, pumps, gas lift, or natural gas injection3. All the techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field other than primary and secondary recovery methods could be tertiary recovery methods, also named enhanced oil recovery(EOR) or improved oil recovery(IOR)4. Among those three names, EOR is the most popular. Also, traditionally EOR is not equal to IOR, just as Drs. Don W Green and G. Paul Willhite said in their SPE textbook, Enhanced Oil Recovery, IOR includes EOR but also encompasses a broader range of activities, e.g., reservoir characterization, improved reservoir management(characterize, monitor, and manage the producing reservoir), and improved drilling and completions5, 6. To revitalize the mature fields, IOR methods should be applied.

In Joel Parshell, the Journal of Petroleum Technology(JPT) feature editor’s article, Mature Fields Hold Big Expansion Opportunity, in the Oct 2012 issue of Society of Petroleum Engineers’ flag magazine JPT, he reviewed the advancement of new techniques and development strategies for the mature fields6. Also, the articles about EOR and completions in the same issue are recommended.

1. Development of Mature Field-A Review.

2. What is a Mature Field?

3. Extraction of Petroleum.

4. Enhanced Oil Recovery.

5. Green, D.W., and Willhite, G.P., Enhanced Oil Recovery, Textbook Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1998) 1.

6. Mature Fields Hold Big Expansion Opportunity.

Expand MacOS Built-in Dictionary

Two months ago, I purchased a Mid 2012 version 13″ MacBook Air with Mac OS 10.8.2 Mountain Lion installed1. It did not take a very long time for me to be familiar with the basic operation of the new OS. I know MacOS has a built-in dictionary application, and sometimes I use it to learn some new words I saw online, since I have been used to look up the new words on Merriam Webster online dictionary2. A couple of days ago, I took a test to estimate my English vocabulary online, which made me resume learning English again. Also, it is a good way to learn English by reading newspaper and professional textbooks and articles. Obviously, more and more new words I could see. Then I did research on how to expand the Dictionary application built-in MacOS. It is possible to add more dictionaries into the application from the online resources. I followed the steps shown in an article [Mac]使用系统自带的词典程序快速取词翻译(fast pick-and-translate the words using built-in dictionary application)3.

To expand the Dictionary application, we need a small tool name DictUnifier, which is free and could be downloaded from google codes4. Also, the must have dictionaries could be downloaded from StarDict Dictionaries5.

After having downloaded the DictUnifier and dictionaries, open the software and drag the dictionary file into the software, wait until the file is uncompressed, convert, and put into the folder automatically. Then setup the Dictionary in the Preference, such as the preferred dictionaries and the sequence of the dictionaries.

Finally, with the correct dictionary, you will know the meaning of a word in any language to another language with the application.

1. Apple MacBook Air specifications

2. Merriam Webster online dictionary

3.[Mac]使用系统自带的词典程序快速取词翻译(fast pick-and-translate the words using built-in dictionary application)

4.Mac Dictionary Kit

5.StarDict Dictionaries — 星际译王词库 词典下载

Defending Diaoyu Islands’ Sovereignty

About two years ago, the author has introduced the Diaoyu Islands and the dispute between China and Japan here1. On Wednesday(August 15th, 2012) afternoon, several activists from HK on a fishing boat successfully landed on Diaoyu Islands with national flag of People’s Republic of China, flag of Hong Hong, and the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth flag(national flag of Republic of China)2. But all the 14 activists were detained by police in Okinawa Prefecture after their success3. This group left Hong Kong on August 12th, 2012 and the goal was to plant Chinese flags on Diaoyu Islands with other groups of activists from Mainland China and Taiwan on August 15th, the anniversary of the day that Japan surrendered during World War II4. It was a pity that the groups from Mainland China and Taiwan could not take part in this activity for some reasons5. The islands were claimed as part of Yilan County, Taiwan Province, China by Chinese governments, while controlled under Ishigaki, Okinawa6. This success won’t change the current status of Diaoyu Islands, and no war or conflict about the islands could happen. Thus, before the reunification of China, the activity of defending Diaoyu Islands’ Sovereignty will continue by the civilians instead of the government or the troops due to the complex relationship across the strait. The governments involved in Diaoyu Islands have to face the pressure from the citizens.


    1. Diaoyu Islands.
    2. Hong Kong Activists Claim Success After Senkaku Landing.
    3. Japan Arrests Chinese Activists Over Diaoyu Islands Issue on Anniversary of Japan’s WWII Surrender.
    4. Hong Kong Sails to Defend Islands’ Sovereignty.
    5. Only Hong Kong’s Boat to Defend Islands’ Sovereignty(大陆、台湾船只未出海 香港保钓船独闯钓鱼岛宣示主权).
    6. Senkaku Islands.

The Presidential Election in Taiwan and 1992 Consensus

From around half of a year ago, I started watching the elections in Taiwan through TV shows and news. After such a period of time, I decided to write a review about the elections in Taiwan here. Today, only one day before the elections, I made up my mind to write the article and predict the result of the elections. This time, it is going to elect the president of ROC, the legislators and the legislators-at-large seats. In this article, I will focus on the election of the president.

The candidates are Ms. Tsai Ing-Wen(the Chair-woman of Democracy Progressive Party), Mr. Ma Ying-Jeou (the current President and the Chair-man of Nationalist Party), and Mr. James Soong Chu-Yu(the Chair-man of the People First Party). More than twenty years ago before the direct election of president, all of those three candidates served in the government of ROC. During the past 20 years, a lot of affairs happened among them, especially between Ma and Soong. In the year 2008, Soong supported Ma’s election because the similar cross-strait policy , but the relationship between them became worse for some reasons. Some suspected that was why Soong took part in the election this time. While Ms. Tsai was elected as the Chair-woman of DPP after the defeat in 2008’s presidency election. She was in charge of drafting the Special state-to-state relations doctrine of President Lee Teng-hui. People believed that she is a Taiwan-independence element due to her deny admitting the existence of 1992 Consensus.

Because of the special relationship between China mainland  and Taiwan, the impact of China central government is always huge on the election of Taiwan, since the Taiwanese hate the pressure from Beijing. In 1996, PLA launched several field-to-field ballistic missiles to the targets near Taiwan to stop the success of Lee Teng-Hui in the election. Obviously, the strategy failed at last. In the next two elections, Beijing switched threat of power to announcements. Chen Shui-Bian, a DPP member successfully finished his two-terms of presidency. Due to the corruption of A-Bian’s administrative, DPP lost in the 2008 election, both in presidency and legislation. Ms. Tsai once was in charge of the cross-strait affairs as the Minister of Mainland Affair Council in A-Bian’s first term and was appointed Vice Premier under Premier Su Tseng-chang until the cabinet’s mass resignation in 2007. The intense cross-strait relationship was partly because Tsai’s insisted on Taiwan independence. Once A-Bian would like to admit 1992 Consensus but Tsai immediately denied in public on that day. From her speech in the debate, she is trying to use soft words on her stance. She also admit the meet of cross-strait in HK in 1992 and there was something she could take that could called anything but 1992 Consensus. Just a few days before the election, many entrepreneurs support 1992 Consensus in public because the benefits from ECFA, the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement between China mainland and Taiwan based on 1992 Consensus. In addition, Ma’s honesty won the support from thousands of scholars and scientists. The involvement of Tsai’s in TaiMed arouse the controversy, since some scientists, especially the biochemist support her role in the case.

The 1992 Consensus or Consensus of 1992 is a term describing the outcome of a meeting in HongKong in 1992 between the semi-official representatives of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) in mainland China and the Republic of China (“ROC”) in Taiwan. From the charts of the two political forms of government, there is only one China and it covers the mainland China and Taiwan. During a phone call between President Hu Jintao and Presient George W. Bush, Hu once talked about the 1992 Consensus, which sees both sides recognize there is only one China, but agree to differ on its definition. While DPP always said that there was no 1992 Consensus during the meeting and no such an agreement between two Communist Party and Nationalist Party. If the PRC government admitted the exist of the ROC on paper, that is to say there were two China in the world, which broke the one China principle the government obeys and the world admits. I have to say that Tsai is either fresh hand on political issues or trouble maker in the world.

Since Tsai and DPP tried to copy the Jasmine Revolution in North Africa or Occupied Wall Street in the campaign to call for the 99% to fight the 1%, she has to face the failure at last. Because most people in Taiwan want peace and prosperity in the coming four years, especially the threat of great depression or recession due to Europe and US. The ECFA will bridge the connection between China Mainland and Taiwan, and offer the Taiwanese opportunity to access the domestic market of China. But for 1992 Consensus, the ECFA could not be reached. Also, if Tsai took power and denied the 1992 Consensus, according to the last item of ECFA, the mainland China could stop the agreement at ease. That is not the threat as some DPP said, but the truth everyone should face.

At the end of the article, I would like to share in my viewpoints on the possible results of the campaign. I believe Ma would win with more than 50% of the vote. Soong may not win with only half a million votes.

National Museum of the United States Air Force

A couple of weeks ago, the first stealth fighter of China made its first test flight. As I know, the United States has exhibited its stealth fighters and bombers, such as F-117A, B-2A, and F-22A, in the National Museum of the United States Air Force, which locates in Dayton, OH1,2. All of those three kinds of airplanes interest me a lot since I got to know them long time ago. Before I started the journey from Rolla, MO to New York City, I decided to visit the museum and take pictures of those planes if I had opportunity to stop at Dayton.

In the early morning of Jan. 14, my friend and I stopped at a motel in Dayton after around 500 miles ride. After a rest, around 11 o’clock we left the inn for the museum. We supposed to reach the site in minutes, but my friend missed an exit on the highway. When we got to the place, it was almost 11:30. Along the Springfield St., near the Harshman Rd., a symbol made of a plane in front of a series of hangars came into my eyes as seen below.

Fig. 1 Symbol of the museum

We continued driving the car following the road, and then we saw a huge concrete wall with the museum’s name.

Fig. 2 Concrete wall with the name of the museum

After having turned right at the corner, some aircrafts exhibited on the field could be seen, such as the retired USAF Lockheed C-141C Starlifter.

Fig. 3 Lockheed C-141C Starlifter

Due to limited time, I directly went to Modern Flight Gallery(including Korea War and Southeast Asia War), where F-22A is shown. In fact I do not know why the museum put the most advanced fighter in this gallery.

Fig. 4 Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor

Thus, I entered the Cold War Gallery, where I took a lot of pictures. In this building, almost all the aircrafts in service could be found except for F-22A and some unmanned aircrafts. In the museum, it was very crowded. In addition, I brought a long focus lense with me. The above picture of F-22A looks fine, but as for B-2A, only part of the aircraft could be taken into the lense.

Fig. 5 Northrop B-2A Spirit

Fig. 6 Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk

Except for those stealth fighters or bombers, I also took pictures of some other aircrafts, such as F-15, F-16A, A-10A, B-1B, SR-71, and Mig-29A. Last year when I went to tour the Intrepid Aircraft Carrier, I have taken a picture of F-16, actually which was borrowed from this museum I visited this time. But I am not sure whether they are the same one or not. The picture of SR-71 is very blur, then I won’t upload here. It is very easy to recognize the tank killer, A-10A.

Fig. 7 McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Fig. 8 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

Fig. 9 Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Fig. 10 Rockwell B-1B Lancer

I was surprise to see Mig-29A, a former Soviet Union two engine light fighter in the museum. In Jun 1989, a Mig-29 crashed while doing a high-performance aerobatic routine at the Paris Air Show. The most impressive thing is that the pilot was saved by the great rocket ejector since the chute didn’t open due to the low elevation since the fighter fell into two pieces and then hit on the ground3.

Fig. 11 Mikoyan MiG-29

The 30 minute tour could never satisfy me at all. Before I left the museum, I talked to an assistant in the Cold War Gallery and explained the reason why I had such a quick tour. Also, I told him that sometime later I will make a long visit to the biggest military aviation museum in the world.


1. National Museum of the United States Air Force(official website).

2. National Museum of the United States Air Force(wikipedia).

3. MIG-29 Crashes at Paris Air Show Pilot Ejects From Soviet Fighter Plane Before Jet Explodes.