Comparing the Performance of 5-Spot and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns by Reservoir Simulation using CMG Suite (Cont~)


RESULTS

1. Recovery and Cumulative Oil Production

The difference of reservoir fluids recovery for 5-spot and inverted 9-spot patterns from simulation results is listed in Table 4, and the cumulative oil production could be found from Fig. 3.

Table 4. Recovery for 5-Spot and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

Parameters 5-Spot Pattern Inverted 9-Spot Pattern

Percentage Recovery

(%)

Oil 42.128 41.148
STO as a % of Mobile Oil 83.011 81.080
Total Gas 93.901 93.280
Water -214.84 -246.91

From the simulation results, the recovery of oil, Stock Tank Oil (STO) as a percentage of mobile oil, and total gas for 5-spot pattern is higher than inverted 9-spot pattern, and less water injection is needed.

Fig. 3 Cumulative Oil Production for 5- and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

2. Water Cut

The filed water cut for 5-spot and inverted 9-spot patterns from reservoir simulation are shown in Fig.4.

Fig. 4 Field Water Cut for 5- and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

The water cut curve for inverted 9-spot pattern has two peaks, one in the year of 2003 and the other in the year of 2005, while the water cut curve for 5-spot pattern has only one peak in the year of 2019.

To understand the difference between field water cut curves for two patterns, it is better to investigate the well water cut curves for two patterns in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5 Well Water Cut for 5- and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

In Fig. 5, well water cut curves of producers for the two patterns could be found. The pink and blue curves represent Well 1 and Well 4, the two diagnosed producers for inverted 9-spot pattern, both of which reached the water cut of 0.95 in the year of 2003. After that, due to the constraints, Well 1 and Well 4 shut in, while Well 3 continued producing until the year of 2005. After the three producers reached the water cut limit, the filed production stopped. As for well water cut curve of Well 1 for 5-spot pattern, the peak occurred in the year of 2019.

For water cut curve of 5-spot pattern, after it reached the peak, it did not turn to zero instantly, which is different from others. Double check with the output file, on Dec. 29, 2019, there is no oil or water produced, and the water cut should be zero. The curve shows 20% water cut on Jan. 1, 2020. The paradox between the data and curve is still not understandable, maybe a numerical solution error.

As for this concept petroleum production unit, 5-spot pattern could produce more oil and gas, but inject less water, comparing with inverted 9-spot pattern.

In addition, whether 5-spot pattern or inverted 9-spot pattern could only produced no more than 45% of oil by water flooding for such a homogeneous reservoir, if proper EOR methods used, such as polymer flooding, the recovery should be increased at 10% more or less.

3. Average Reservoir Pressure, Liquid and Oil Production Rate

Because the oil production rate is highly dependent on the reservoir pressure, the average reservoir pressure, liquid and oil production rate data are combined in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 Average Reservoir Pressure and Oil Rate for 5- and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

From the initial conditions and constraints, the initial reservoir pressure is around 34000 k Pa, and the bubble point pressure is 30000 k Pa, while the maximum bottom hole pressure is 80000 k Pa, thus, the injection started on Jan. 1, 1995 for both cases. At this phase, the major mechanism for oil production is depletion. Each producer has a constant oil rate which is 30 m3 per day, with high gas rate. With the reservoir pressure decreases, more and more solution gas came out. After produced two years (the year of 1997), the solution gas rate reached the peak, and the reservoir pressure could not provide enough energy for oil rate at such a high level for inverted 9-spot pattern, the oil rate dropped very quickly. Then, water flooding supported the oil production. Until the year of 2001, only oil produced comparing the liquid rate and oil rate. Afterwards, the oil rate decreased and liquid rate increased very quickly. If we checked the water cut in Fig. 3 or 4, we could found that water cut increased sharply. When the two producers reached 0.95 water cut, they were shut in. The oil rate and liquid rate lowered to 30 m3 per day until the water cut reaches the upper limit. Once the three producers were shut in, the reservoir pressure will maintain at 80000 k Pa, the upper limit for the injection.

As for 5-spot pattern, after produced eight years (the year of 2003), the solution gas rate reached the peak, and the reservoir pressure could not provide enough energy for oil rate at such a high, the oil rate dropped very quickly. Then, water flooding supported the oil production. Until the year of 2004, only oil produced comparing the liquid rate and oil rate. Afterwards, the oil rate decreased and liquid rate increased very quickly. If we checked the water cut in Fig. 4 or 5, we could found that water cut increased sharply. When the producer reached 0.95 water cut, it will be shut in.

Comparing the two cases, inverted 9-spot pattern could be regarded as the compressed 5-spot pattern on the time scale. If we stretched the pressure curve of inverted 9-spot pattern, the curve may match that of 5-spot pattern.

4. Gas-Oil Ratio

Figure 7 shows the gas oil ratio changes with time. The curves prove the production history explained above.

Fig. 7 Gas Oil Ratio for 5- and Inverted 9-Spot Patterns

5. Oil Saturation Distribution

Figures 8 and 9 provide the oil saturation on Jan. 1, 1997, and on Jan. 1, 2017, respectively. According to the scale bar on the right of the figures, dark green shows lower oil saturation, and light green (or yellow) shows high oil saturation. The difference of oil saturation between layers could show the gravity effect on the water flooding.

Fig. 8 Oil Saturation for 5-Spot Pattern on Jan. 1, 1997

Fig. 9 Oil Saturation for 5-Spot Pattern on Jan. 1, 2017

CONCLUSIONS

From the simulation results, we can conclude that

  1. For this reservoir, 5-spot pattern has higher recovery, but inverted 9-spot pattern produces oil more efficiently;
  2. Inverted 9-spot pattern seems to be the compressed 5-spot pattern due to the high injection rate;
  3. A decision should be made if more conditions provided;
  4. From the PVT data and relative permeability data, this reservoir is homogeneous, but the mobility ratio became more and more unfavorable, inverted 9-spot pattern should be considered;
  5. The oil saturation distribution shows the gravity effect during water flooding;
  6. Whether 5-spot pattern or inverted 9-spot pattern could only produced no more than 45% of oil by water flooding for such a homogeneous reservoir, if proper EOR methods used, such as polymer flooding, the recovery should be increased at 10% more or less.

Reference:

  1. Rose, S.C., J.F. Buckwalter and R.J. Woodhall, “The Design Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding”, SPE Volume 11 of the Henry L. Doherty Series, Richardson, TX (1989).

APPENDIX

Mobility Ratio:

M=\frac{\left ( \frac{k_{r}}{\mu } \right )_{w}}{\left ( \frac{k_{r}}{\mu } \right )_{o}}=\frac{ \frac{k_{rw}}{\mu_{w}}}{ \frac{k_{ro}}{\mu_{o}}}=\frac{ \frac{\mu_{o}}{\mu_{w}}}{ \frac{k_{ro}}{k_{rw}}}

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