Mature Field

Today I am going to talk about mature field, which is not a new but development concept. The definition of this term varies with personnels. In Dr.Tayfun Babadagli’s review paper, Development of Mature Field-A Review, he defined three times. 1. The oil fields after a certain production period, which is very ambiguous; 2. The fields have reached the peak of their production or those producing fields in declining mode; 3. The fields have reached their economic limit after  primary and secondary recovery efforts1. Fig.1 shows the second definition of mature field, which was recommended by Halliburton. If the Mature Field in the typical production life of a field graph was replaced by Peak Production, after reaching Economic Limit the oilfield was regarded as mature field, that is the third definition Dr. Tayfun has given.

Fig. 1 Typical Production Life of a Field2.

Also, we have to talk about new fields and old fields here. Sometimes, mature field means old field. The two definitions are similar but not exactly the same. To simplify the problem here, most mature fields are old, but old fields may not be mature. Why? The economic limit is dynamic, due to the developments of technology, the production cost and the oil price.

As we know, during the primary recovery, reservoir drive comes from natural mechanisms3. Once the reservoir pressure is not high enough to drive the oil to the ground, external energy are needed to provide the drive to push or pull the oil from underground, such as water flooding, pumps, gas lift, or natural gas injection3. All the techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field other than primary and secondary recovery methods could be tertiary recovery methods, also named enhanced oil recovery(EOR) or improved oil recovery(IOR)4. Among those three names, EOR is the most popular. Also, traditionally EOR is not equal to IOR, just as Drs. Don W Green and G. Paul Willhite said in their SPE textbook, Enhanced Oil Recovery, IOR includes EOR but also encompasses a broader range of activities, e.g., reservoir characterization, improved reservoir management(characterize, monitor, and manage the producing reservoir), and improved drilling and completions5, 6. To revitalize the mature fields, IOR methods should be applied.

In Joel Parshell, the Journal of Petroleum Technology(JPT) feature editor’s article, Mature Fields Hold Big Expansion Opportunity, in the Oct 2012 issue of Society of Petroleum Engineers’ flag magazine JPT, he reviewed the advancement of new techniques and development strategies for the mature fields6. Also, the articles about EOR and completions in the same issue are recommended.

1. Development of Mature Field-A Review.

2. What is a Mature Field?

3. Extraction of Petroleum.

4. Enhanced Oil Recovery.

5. Green, D.W., and Willhite, G.P., Enhanced Oil Recovery, Textbook Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1998) 1.

6. Mature Fields Hold Big Expansion Opportunity.

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Expand MacOS Built-in Dictionary

Two months ago, I purchased a Mid 2012 version 13″ MacBook Air with Mac OS 10.8.2 Mountain Lion installed1. It did not take a very long time for me to be familiar with the basic operation of the new OS. I know MacOS has a built-in dictionary application, and sometimes I use it to learn some new words I saw online, since I have been used to look up the new words on Merriam Webster online dictionary2. A couple of days ago, I took a test to estimate my English vocabulary online, which made me resume learning English again. Also, it is a good way to learn English by reading newspaper and professional textbooks and articles. Obviously, more and more new words I could see. Then I did research on how to expand the Dictionary application built-in MacOS. It is possible to add more dictionaries into the application from the online resources. I followed the steps shown in an article [Mac]使用系统自带的词典程序快速取词翻译(fast pick-and-translate the words using built-in dictionary application)3.

To expand the Dictionary application, we need a small tool name DictUnifier, which is free and could be downloaded from google codes4. Also, the must have dictionaries could be downloaded from StarDict Dictionaries5.

After having downloaded the DictUnifier and dictionaries, open the software and drag the dictionary file into the software, wait until the file is uncompressed, convert, and put into the folder automatically. Then setup the Dictionary in the Preference, such as the preferred dictionaries and the sequence of the dictionaries.

Finally, with the correct dictionary, you will know the meaning of a word in any language to another language with the application.

1. Apple MacBook Air specifications

2. Merriam Webster online dictionary

3.[Mac]使用系统自带的词典程序快速取词翻译(fast pick-and-translate the words using built-in dictionary application)

4.Mac Dictionary Kit

5.StarDict Dictionaries — 星际译王词库 词典下载