National Museum of the United States Air Force

A couple of weeks ago, the first stealth fighter of China made its first test flight. As I know, the United States has exhibited its stealth fighters and bombers, such as F-117A, B-2A, and F-22A, in the National Museum of the United States Air Force, which locates in Dayton, OH1,2. All of those three kinds of airplanes interest me a lot since I got to know them long time ago. Before I started the journey from Rolla, MO to New York City, I decided to visit the museum and take pictures of those planes if I had opportunity to stop at Dayton.

In the early morning of Jan. 14, my friend and I stopped at a motel in Dayton after around 500 miles ride. After a rest, around 11 o’clock we left the inn for the museum. We supposed to reach the site in minutes, but my friend missed an exit on the highway. When we got to the place, it was almost 11:30. Along the Springfield St., near the Harshman Rd., a symbol made of a plane in front of a series of hangars came into my eyes as seen below.

Fig. 1 Symbol of the museum

We continued driving the car following the road, and then we saw a huge concrete wall with the museum’s name.

Fig. 2 Concrete wall with the name of the museum

After having turned right at the corner, some aircrafts exhibited on the field could be seen, such as the retired USAF Lockheed C-141C Starlifter.

Fig. 3 Lockheed C-141C Starlifter

Due to limited time, I directly went to Modern Flight Gallery(including Korea War and Southeast Asia War), where F-22A is shown. In fact I do not know why the museum put the most advanced fighter in this gallery.

Fig. 4 Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor

Thus, I entered the Cold War Gallery, where I took a lot of pictures. In this building, almost all the aircrafts in service could be found except for F-22A and some unmanned aircrafts. In the museum, it was very crowded. In addition, I brought a long focus lense with me. The above picture of F-22A looks fine, but as for B-2A, only part of the aircraft could be taken into the lense.

Fig. 5 Northrop B-2A Spirit

Fig. 6 Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk

Except for those stealth fighters or bombers, I also took pictures of some other aircrafts, such as F-15, F-16A, A-10A, B-1B, SR-71, and Mig-29A. Last year when I went to tour the Intrepid Aircraft Carrier, I have taken a picture of F-16, actually which was borrowed from this museum I visited this time. But I am not sure whether they are the same one or not. The picture of SR-71 is very blur, then I won’t upload here. It is very easy to recognize the tank killer, A-10A.

Fig. 7 McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Fig. 8 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

Fig. 9 Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Fig. 10 Rockwell B-1B Lancer

I was surprise to see Mig-29A, a former Soviet Union two engine light fighter in the museum. In Jun 1989, a Mig-29 crashed while doing a high-performance aerobatic routine at the Paris Air Show. The most impressive thing is that the pilot was saved by the great rocket ejector since the chute didn’t open due to the low elevation since the fighter fell into two pieces and then hit on the ground3.

Fig. 11 Mikoyan MiG-29

The 30 minute tour could never satisfy me at all. Before I left the museum, I talked to an assistant in the Cold War Gallery and explained the reason why I had such a quick tour. Also, I told him that sometime later I will make a long visit to the biggest military aviation museum in the world.

References:

1. National Museum of the United States Air Force(official website).

2. National Museum of the United States Air Force(wikipedia).

3. MIG-29 Crashes at Paris Air Show Pilot Ejects From Soviet Fighter Plane Before Jet Explodes.

Will China’s Economy Back 100 Years if Involved the Korean Conflicts?

Ten days ago, it was reported that Gernal Burwell Baxter Bell, the former commander of the United States Forces Korea (USFK) on Friday called for powerful military retaliation to future provocations by North Korea and a temporary ban on all engagements with the regime to punish it for its recent deadly attack on a South Korean island1. He also emphasized that six-party talks as a way of taming the belligerency of North Korea have failed and should be replaced by tougher military responses and economic embargoes and hard stand should be the only option2. But in a report in Chinese and Korean, General Bell once said that if China took part in the war on the Korean peninsula, China will back to 100 years ago3~5. Shortly after, the news propagated over Chinese websites, especially a famous Chinese media Global Times6. The response from Chinese netizens is quick and strong. Also, some personnel related to PLA or belong to PLA strongly criticized the warning7,8. General Peng responded that if China falls back to 100 years ago, the U.S. should be prepared to fall back 200 years9. Now Korean media began talking about Peng’s words10.

Former USFK commander Burwell Bell speaks at a security forum in Seoul on Dec. 3. (Yonhap1)

I have no comments on Generals words, but I think it is very strange that General Bell’s warning on China’s involvement in Korean conflicts started from Korean media in Korean and Chinese. I could not find any English version of his words. Also, no video could be found on the internet. I guess that is a rumor created by Korean media. It is not very difficult to find out why they did that. But I cannot understand why US would allow they do such a stupid thing. It is time for US to do something to rein South Korea.

BTW, one more funny thing is that Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan plans to send troops to the Korean Peninsula if a war break out, which has been dismissed by South Korea11. Japan government is insistently over warmhearted on others’ land.  At the end of this post, I wanna say please do not forget from Dec.13, 1937, Imperial Japanese Army killed more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and POWs, and raped thousands of women, which is called Nanking Massacre.

References:

1. Former USFK chief urges ‘asymmetric’ retaliation for future N.K. provocations.
2. Bell: hard stand is only option.
3. The only option, powerful military retaliation to future provocations by North Korea(in Chinese, 应对朝鲜挑衅 除了武力报复之外别无他途).
4. Bell, the former commander of United States Forces Korea, said, use of forces as a solution to North’s provocations(in Korean, “北 도발 해법은 무력사용뿐” 벨 前주한미군사령관 ).
5. No alternative options other than military retaliation to North’s further provocations(in Korean, “北 추가도발시 무력보복외 대안없어”).
6. The former commander of USFK told Korean media, If China involved the Korean conflicts, it will back to 100 years ago (in Chinese, 驻韩美军前司令答韩媒:中国参战将被打回100年前).
7. Luo Yuan: China’s involvement in the Korean conflict if the U.S. would be “100-year nightmare”.
8. General Peng Guangqian talked the US-Japan joint military drills and the security situations in northeast Asia(in Chinese, 彭光谦谈美日联合军演及东北亚安全局势).
9. Chinese Envoy Rejects Call to Rein in N.Korea .
10. After North’s provocation on Yeongpyeong Island, if China retreated 100 years, its opponent should retreat 200 years(in Korean, <北 연평도 도발 이후>“전쟁으로 中 100년 후퇴땐 상대방은 200년 후퇴할 것”).
11. Seoul dismisses Japan PM’s comment on troop dispatch .

Artillery Barrages between Koreas

According to media from South Korea, North Korea fired artillery onto Yeonpyeong Island, which locates in the disputed area between the North Limit Line by South Korea and US and North Korean Military Demarcation Line on West Sea or Yellow Sea on Nov. 23rd1. It is believed that the Hoguk Exercise (호국훈련, National Protection Exercise) in the disputed areas triggered the incident2. Before the military drill, DPRK has condemned the annual exercise and warned they would fire shots2. Since the South explained the exercise is a routine one, a military activity in disputed areas should be controversial. It is reported that South Korea lost 4 (including 2 civilians) and injured 19 (including 3 civilians)3. The casualties and losses from North Korea are unknown till now.

Fig. 1 Disputed Maritime Demarcation Line between Koreas1

Fig. 2 People watch as plumes of smoke rise up from buildings on South Korea’s Yeonpueong island after North Korea fired hundreds of artillery rounds4

Fig. 3 CCTV captures the moment a shell lands on the island4

Fig. 4 A South Korean marine walks through destroyed houses on Yeonpyeong (Photograph: Lee Jin-Man/AP)5

Before the current president of South Korea took the power, the relationship between Koreas was smooth and stable. As we know, North Korea is developing its nuclear power, and the explosion could be regarded as one from atomic bomb. Just before the artillery barrages, a report by Dr. Siegfried S. Hecker stated that North Korea has a modern, clean centrifuge plant of more than 1000 centrifuges all neatly aligned at the country’s Yongbyon nuclear complex and could make two nuclear bombs per year6. One more fact that we could not ignore is that the low living standard in Korea. Thus, we can concluded that North Korea develops mass destruction weapons without considering the starving people. Hold on, please. Here is a question. Why Kim spent so much on the weapon? Killing Chinese? No, I do not think so. Killing Korean? Maybe. Japanese? Possible. American? How? If there was no troops in South Korea, I believe it is hardly for North Korea to attack Washington. Frequent military exercise near or in the Korean Peninsula made the area very sensitive. During the Korean war in the mid 20th century, the threatens of atomic bombs from US on China and Korea were the motivations to develop the nuclear weapons for their own. After China successfully tested its first atomic bomb in 1964, the Communist government claimed that China undertakes not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones at any time or under any circumstances7. North Korea needs a secure environment to develop its economy, while the aggressive President Lee Myungbak and the US troops in South Korea made the wish less possible. Now US and other countries press China to rein in North Korea to prevent further provocative incidents such as the deadly artillery attack on a South Korean island close to the border8. On the other hand, US deployed the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73) and four other US Navy (USN) warships to the West Sea (Yellow Sea)9 and began a joint military exercise with South Korea within a broad range which covers 34 degrees 30 minutes north latitude to 36 degrees to 125 degrees east longitude 124 degrees 42 minutes announced by South Korea’s National Oceanographic Research Institute on Nov. 2710. The location of the joint exercise is close to China and North Korea, since it is sort of far from the disputed area10. North Korea has condemned the 4-day war games bring the divided peninsula “closer to the brink of war”11. China started a series of diplomatic activities to ease the tensions, such sending senior officials to Koreas11, exchanging ideas with related countries12, and calling for emergency 6-way talk13. Recently, Wikileaks released US diplomatic cable including the attitude of China on Koreas14. The joint military exercise is to make the situation more complex and worse. President Lee Myung-bak is very confident about the military forces of South Korea, but if North Korea showers Seoul with artillery rounds and rockets, there are predictions that half of the capital will be destroyed in just a day15. It seems that what Lee has done at the risk of millions of South Korean’s lives. The unification of Koreas should be a long term process provided that North Korea could develop its economy and democracy under a stable environment. Otherwise, it is a disaster for all the people in Northeast Asia, especially for China and Koreas. US government and President Lee Myung-bak should abandon the strong and unrealistic policy to North Korea, and drag the Korea Peninsula back onto the right track to peace and denuclearization.

References:

  1. Dispatch: North Korea Shells a South Korean Island.
  2. N.Korea fires artillery shells toward Yeonpyeong Island, killing two marines.
  3. Bombardment of Yeonpyeong.
  4. Korea on the brink: South warns of retaliation after North’s shellfire strike kills two marines.
  5. South Korea cancels Yeonpyeong island drills.
  6. North Korea could make two nuclear bombs per year.
  7. China’s National Statement on Security Assurance.
  8. US to press China to rein in North Korea after attack.
  9. US sends aircraft carrier to Yellow Sea following North Korean attacks.
  10. U.S. military exercises in South Korea Yellow Sea in Shandong sailing 170 kilometers away from the warning is announced.
  11. US-South Korea Joint Naval Show Sparks High Voltage Tension.
  12. Peace & the Koreas.
  13. China Calls For Six-Party Talk With N. Korea.
  14. China frustrated with North Korea: WikiLeaks.
  15. Gov’t Mulls Turning Baeknyeong into Forward Deployment Base.

Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum

Note: The 8th China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition (namely Airshow China) is being held in Zhuhai from 16th to 21st this November. Besides, I hope Space Shuttle Discovery could successfully finished her last mission. This post is dedicated to those who are concerning about the advancement in aerospace.

One week before, I went to visit the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum, which locates on the west shore of Manhattan Island, close to the Central Park and Times Square (as shown in Fig.1 below). In Fig.1, the red circle indicates the location of Time Square and the yellow one on the right top shows the Central Park.

Fig. 1 Location of USS Intrepid (Green circle)

Zoom in the google map online, you can see the aircraft carrier with a Concorde supersonic passenger airliner (blue circle)  and a diesel-electric submarine USS Growler (SSG-577)(purple circle). Actually the arrangement of the aircrafts on the flight deck in the figure below was different from what I have seen. I am not sure how often Google Maps updates the data. At least a legend surveillance aircraft, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, was not on the map. Actually the blackbird and F-14 Tomcat were on the side close to 12th Avenue. When I first saw the aircraft carrier and the two planes at the corner of 12th Avenue and 46th Street, I thought that was Su-27 Flanker, a great and famous fighter made by former USSR and Russia. The vertical tails look very similar to each other. With the crackdown of Soviet Union, US also obtained several flankers from former USSR members for personal use and collection.

Fig. 2 Layout of Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum

Fig.3 British Airways Concorde

Fig.4 USS 577 Growler

Fig. 5 Lockheed A-12(SR-71 Blackbird)

Fig. 6 Grumman F-14 Tomcat

OK, let’s come back to the visit to the museum. After purchased the ticket, I went to the hanger deck, where I can see the interior structure of the aircraft carrier. Also, the history of the aircraft carrier and stuff related to the vessel, such as the Aurora 7 Capsule Replica could be seen on hanger deck. I did not pay much attention there, within half an hour I turned to the flight deck via the stairs. Several guns with different calibers could be seen on the way.

When I was standing on the flight deck, a special feeling came into my mind. Once upon a time, I had a dream about the aircraft carrier. China should have her own aircraft, which could help the People’s Liberation Army Navy to protect the maritime rights and interests, especially on East China Sea and South China Sea. A rumor said that a USSR/Ukraine made aircraft Varyag anchored in Dalian, China under reconstruction for military use. It seems to be unpredictable that how soon it could join the navy. I am proud of being the first standing on a real aircraft carrier among our group of military fans. It is regretable that the AC is not belong to China.

I am not going to introduce the aircrafts on the flight deck, because you can find more details about the exhibits on the wikipedia. A picture of Tomcat once was under a huge glass plate on my desk when I was in high school. The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon loaned from the National Museum of the United States Air Force. is one of the most popular fighter in the contemporary world. I am familiar with the Mig fighters from Poland and China. From childhood, I had the models of a series of Mig fighters at home. It is a pity that there was no F-15 Eagle, or F/A-18 Hornet on the deck. As for F-22 Raptor, the most advanced fighter in the world, I did not even have a wish to see it there. I heard that there was an F-22 air show around NYC before. Maybe I could wait for the next to catch the steal fighter with my new camera.

Fig. 7 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

I feel so lucky that I can see  the Royal Naval HMS Daring (D32) near the museum. After the visit I did research about the warship. The lead ship of the Type 45 or ‘D’ Class of air defence destroyer was declared officially in service at the end of July in 2010, since it was lauched  in 2006. The new destroyer visited US for a joint exercise with US aircraft carrier USS Enterprise(CVN-65)1. Unfortunately, on Nov. 10th, only two days after it went back to UK from US2, it has been forced to go into the dock with engine problems3.

Fig. 8 United Kingdom Royal Naval HMS Daring(D32)

References:

1. UK Navy’s HMS Daring conducts joint exercise with US aircraft carrier.

2.Daring Destroyer Returns From US Exercise.

3. Daring’s engines fail.

Response to “Olympic Torch lights up China’s past”

Notice: A couple of months before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the torch rally arouse the anti China government incidents by dissidents of China. Sarah Richmond, a student of Missouri University of Science and Technology, wrote a short article “Olympic torch lights up China’s past” for the Miner, the campus newspaper. With a friend’s help, I wrote an essay to respond to her article on the next issue. Today more than thousands of articles reported the news that Liu Xiaobo, a dissident of China won the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize. Mr. Liu is serving his 11 years sentence in prison because of inciting subversion. All the western media, politicians and government are glad to see a dissident of China winning the prize. It is more ridiculous that I felt when I heard that news than last year when I got to know Mr. Barack Obama, the president of a country is occupying Iraq and killing civilians in Afghanistan, won the same prize last year. Of course I could not forget what Dalai Lama, the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, has done to damage the peace of Tibet noways. Below is the full text of my response to the article, also to the Norwegian Nobel Peace Prize Committee.

It’s shocking and fascinating to come across opinions over and over again, especially in recent weeks, on how China and the Beijing Olympics deserve to be bashed. The article in the Opinions is one of them. I don’t blame western people for not knowing the specific history or for taking part of the “Free-Tibet” campaign as a result. But I do want to raise the question to western media who spread biased reports and mislead the masses, and I would like to offer some information, not as a Chinese native, but as someone who did extra readings and studies in this matter, to the Miners who are willing to know the truth behind the media.

Is Tibet a part of China? This is a historical question and history is always complicated. The history of Tibet’s relationship with China can be traced back hundreds of years. For recent history, I would recommend several articles and books, such as Friendly Feudalism: The Tibet Myth by internationally known award-winning author and lecturer, Michael Parenti (www.michaelparenti.org/Tibet.html), and A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State, by Dr. Melvyn C. Goldstein, a social anthropologist at the Center for Research on Tibet.

First of all, much evidence points to the historic fact of Tibet being a slavery society ruled with brutal dictatorship for centuries, quite the opposite of the peaceful Shangri-la as the Tibetan Exiles and the Hollywood movies describe. “History belies the Shangri-La image of Tibetan lamas and their followers living together in mutual tolerance and nonviolent goodwill. Indeed, the situation was quite different. Old Tibet was much more like Europe during the religious wars of the Counterreformation.” (Erik D. Curren, Buddha’s Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today (Alaya Press 2005), 41.) Tibetan Buddhism is not pacifistic, nor was the old Tibet free of bloodshed and torture. The 13th Dalai Lama himself used to collect religious artifacts made out of human skin and bones, and later gave many of them as gifts to world leaders and supporters. This happened in the middle of 20th century.

Second, Tibet has been closely connected with the central Chinese government in one form or another since as early as the seventh century. Up till 1944, it was clearly acknowledged in the U.S. documentary Why We Fight – The Battle of China, (which can be found in libraries, Blockbuster and YouTube) that Tibet, as well as Mongolia, was a part of China. What, then, made the U.S. and the rest of international world turn about face seven years later to blame China for “invading” Tibet? This is a question we should ask ourselves based on Cold War history. The answer to me is quite clear: they turned their back on historical facts in order to reject and fight against Communist China. In fact, the Tibet Government in Exile was funded by the CIA, as recorded in this disclosed file:http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_xxx/337_343.html, and the U.S. Congress still continuously allocates millions of dollars every year to support the Dalai Lama and his army.

Naturally, as any overthrown power would do if they were supported by other powers, the exiled Tibetans blame China for taking their privileges away, and ask for any support they can get. In doing so, instead of offering the world the whole story including their history of slavery, they give their one-sided, sympathy-seeking version of it. While presenting the Dalai Lama’s smiling pictures around the world, they started a violent riot on March 14, 2008 in Lhasa, killing innocent civilians and burning down residents’ houses and stores. The Olympic Games provide an opportunity to garner more media attention.

Most Western media, sadly, hasn’t been diligent in reporting the whole truth. An image of a Chinese soldier pulling a Tibetan child to safety was misused as documentation of Chinese abuse of Tibetan children. Death counts of mostly local Han and Muslim civilians were reported with headlines implying the loss of the Tibetan lives. A supportive celebration by the San Francisco Chinese community at the Olympic Torch Relay, where Chinese—not Tibetan—national flags were flown by the thousands, was labeled by the media as “Tibetans Flock to San Francisco to Protest Olympics”. More details can be found at http://www.anti-cnn.com, as well as many articles and You Tube video clips such as this interview with James Miles of The Economist athttp://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/03/20/tibet.miles.interview/index.html.

It’s very disappointing to see that many people trust the media and one-sided propaganda, rather than taking a little time to read the real history. Blind trust isn’t much different than ignorance. It is both comic and sad that many Western supporters of “Free Tibet” don’t even know where Tibet is, much less have a basic understanding of the historical context, before they adopt a one-sided approach.

The Chinese, as well as many people around the world, were enraged when one of the “Free Tibet” supporters in Paris attacked a young female torch-bearer on a wheelchair to grab the Olympic Torch which she was protecting with her whole body. I personally believe that many Western protesters are truly touched by stories they’ve heard about the “plight of exiled Tibetans,” and they only want a better world with more freedom and democracy for everyone. Unfortunately, without historical context and awareness of the political undercurrents, they may well be fighting for something altogether different, such as “human rights” for former slave lords and dictators. Their passion and goodwill may in fact be abused in the whirlpool of Western politics towards China.

The recent protests and the media inclination not only hurt the feelings of the Chinese, the ever-improving relationship between China and the international world, but also damage the spirit of the Olympics. Only communications and respects for truth, not violence or blind blames, will bring us closer to the better world for which we strive.

Potsdam Declaration

The Postdam Declaration, or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement by the leaders of United States, United Kingdom, and the Republic of China calling for the Surrender of Japan in World War II. The document, which outlines the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Postdam Conference was issued on July 26, 1945. The full-text of the document is shown below1.

  1. We-the President of the United States, the President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, representing the hundreds of millions of our countrymen, have conferred and agree that Japan shall be given an opportunity to end this war.
  2. The prodigious land, sea and air forces of the United States, the British Empire and of China, many times reinforced by their armies and air fleets from the west, are poised to strike the final blows upon Japan. This military power is sustained and inspired by the determination of all the Allied Nations to prosecute the war against Japan until she ceases to resist.
  3. The result of the futile and senseless German resistance to the might of the aroused free peoples of the world stands forth in awful clarity as an example to the people of Japan. The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.
  4. The time has come for Japan to decide whether she will continue to be controlled by those self-willed militaristic advisers whose unintelligent calculations have brought the Empire of Japan to the threshold of annihilation, or whether she will follow the path of reason.
  5. Following are our terms. We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay.
  6. There must be eliminated for all time the authority and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest, for we insist that a new order of peace, security and justice will be impossible until irresponsible militarism is driven from the world.
  7. Until such a new order is established and until there is convincing proof that Japan’s war-making power is destroyed, points in Japanese territory to be designated by the Allies shall be occupied to secure the achievement of the basic objectives we are here setting forth.
  8. The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out and Japanese sovereignty shall be limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as we determine.
  9. The Japanese military forces, after being completely disarmed, shall be permitted to return to their homes with the opportunity to lead peaceful and productive lives.
  10. We do not intend that the Japanese shall be enslaved as a race or destroyed as a nation, but stern justice shall be meted out to all war criminals, including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners. The Japanese Government shall remove all obstacles to the revival and strengthening of democratic tendencies among the Japanese people. Freedom of speech, of religion, and of thought, as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established.
  11. Japan shall be permitted to maintain such industries as will sustain her economy and permit the exaction of just reparations in kind, but not those which would enable her to re-arm for war. To this end, access to, as distinguished from control of, raw materials shall be permitted. Eventual Japanese participation in world trade relations shall be permitted.
  12. The occupying forces of the Allies shall be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished and there has been established in accordance with the freely expressed will of the Japanese people a peacefully inclined and responsible government.
  13. We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction2.

References:

1. Potsdam Declaration.

2. Potsdam Declaration(The Ministory of Foriegn Affairs “Nihon Gaiko Nenpyo Narabini Shuyo Bunsho : 1840-1945” vol.2, 1966).