Defending Diaoyu Islands’ Sovereignty

About two years ago, the author has introduced the Diaoyu Islands and the dispute between China and Japan here1. On Wednesday(August 15th, 2012) afternoon, several activists from HK on a fishing boat successfully landed on Diaoyu Islands with national flag of People’s Republic of China, flag of Hong Hong, and the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth flag(national flag of Republic of China)2. But all the 14 activists were detained by police in Okinawa Prefecture after their success3. This group left Hong Kong on August 12th, 2012 and the goal was to plant Chinese flags on Diaoyu Islands with other groups of activists from Mainland China and Taiwan on August 15th, the anniversary of the day that Japan surrendered during World War II4. It was a pity that the groups from Mainland China and Taiwan could not take part in this activity for some reasons5. The islands were claimed as part of Yilan County, Taiwan Province, China by Chinese governments, while controlled under Ishigaki, Okinawa6. This success won’t change the current status of Diaoyu Islands, and no war or conflict about the islands could happen. Thus, before the reunification of China, the activity of defending Diaoyu Islands’ Sovereignty will continue by the civilians instead of the government or the troops due to the complex relationship across the strait. The governments involved in Diaoyu Islands have to face the pressure from the citizens.


    1. Diaoyu Islands.
    2. Hong Kong Activists Claim Success After Senkaku Landing.
    3. Japan Arrests Chinese Activists Over Diaoyu Islands Issue on Anniversary of Japan’s WWII Surrender.
    4. Hong Kong Sails to Defend Islands’ Sovereignty.
    5. Only Hong Kong’s Boat to Defend Islands’ Sovereignty(大陆、台湾船只未出海 香港保钓船独闯钓鱼岛宣示主权).
    6. Senkaku Islands.

The Presidential Election in Taiwan and 1992 Consensus

From around half of a year ago, I started watching the elections in Taiwan through TV shows and news. After such a period of time, I decided to write a review about the elections in Taiwan here. Today, only one day before the elections, I made up my mind to write the article and predict the result of the elections. This time, it is going to elect the president of ROC, the legislators and the legislators-at-large seats. In this article, I will focus on the election of the president.

The candidates are Ms. Tsai Ing-Wen(the Chair-woman of Democracy Progressive Party), Mr. Ma Ying-Jeou (the current President and the Chair-man of Nationalist Party), and Mr. James Soong Chu-Yu(the Chair-man of the People First Party). More than twenty years ago before the direct election of president, all of those three candidates served in the government of ROC. During the past 20 years, a lot of affairs happened among them, especially between Ma and Soong. In the year 2008, Soong supported Ma’s election because the similar cross-strait policy , but the relationship between them became worse for some reasons. Some suspected that was why Soong took part in the election this time. While Ms. Tsai was elected as the Chair-woman of DPP after the defeat in 2008’s presidency election. She was in charge of drafting the Special state-to-state relations doctrine of President Lee Teng-hui. People believed that she is a Taiwan-independence element due to her deny admitting the existence of 1992 Consensus.

Because of the special relationship between China mainland  and Taiwan, the impact of China central government is always huge on the election of Taiwan, since the Taiwanese hate the pressure from Beijing. In 1996, PLA launched several field-to-field ballistic missiles to the targets near Taiwan to stop the success of Lee Teng-Hui in the election. Obviously, the strategy failed at last. In the next two elections, Beijing switched threat of power to announcements. Chen Shui-Bian, a DPP member successfully finished his two-terms of presidency. Due to the corruption of A-Bian’s administrative, DPP lost in the 2008 election, both in presidency and legislation. Ms. Tsai once was in charge of the cross-strait affairs as the Minister of Mainland Affair Council in A-Bian’s first term and was appointed Vice Premier under Premier Su Tseng-chang until the cabinet’s mass resignation in 2007. The intense cross-strait relationship was partly because Tsai’s insisted on Taiwan independence. Once A-Bian would like to admit 1992 Consensus but Tsai immediately denied in public on that day. From her speech in the debate, she is trying to use soft words on her stance. She also admit the meet of cross-strait in HK in 1992 and there was something she could take that could called anything but 1992 Consensus. Just a few days before the election, many entrepreneurs support 1992 Consensus in public because the benefits from ECFA, the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement between China mainland and Taiwan based on 1992 Consensus. In addition, Ma’s honesty won the support from thousands of scholars and scientists. The involvement of Tsai’s in TaiMed arouse the controversy, since some scientists, especially the biochemist support her role in the case.

The 1992 Consensus or Consensus of 1992 is a term describing the outcome of a meeting in HongKong in 1992 between the semi-official representatives of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) in mainland China and the Republic of China (“ROC”) in Taiwan. From the charts of the two political forms of government, there is only one China and it covers the mainland China and Taiwan. During a phone call between President Hu Jintao and Presient George W. Bush, Hu once talked about the 1992 Consensus, which sees both sides recognize there is only one China, but agree to differ on its definition. While DPP always said that there was no 1992 Consensus during the meeting and no such an agreement between two Communist Party and Nationalist Party. If the PRC government admitted the exist of the ROC on paper, that is to say there were two China in the world, which broke the one China principle the government obeys and the world admits. I have to say that Tsai is either fresh hand on political issues or trouble maker in the world.

Since Tsai and DPP tried to copy the Jasmine Revolution in North Africa or Occupied Wall Street in the campaign to call for the 99% to fight the 1%, she has to face the failure at last. Because most people in Taiwan want peace and prosperity in the coming four years, especially the threat of great depression or recession due to Europe and US. The ECFA will bridge the connection between China Mainland and Taiwan, and offer the Taiwanese opportunity to access the domestic market of China. But for 1992 Consensus, the ECFA could not be reached. Also, if Tsai took power and denied the 1992 Consensus, according to the last item of ECFA, the mainland China could stop the agreement at ease. That is not the threat as some DPP said, but the truth everyone should face.

At the end of the article, I would like to share in my viewpoints on the possible results of the campaign. I believe Ma would win with more than 50% of the vote. Soong may not win with only half a million votes.

National Museum of the United States Air Force

A couple of weeks ago, the first stealth fighter of China made its first test flight. As I know, the United States has exhibited its stealth fighters and bombers, such as F-117A, B-2A, and F-22A, in the National Museum of the United States Air Force, which locates in Dayton, OH1,2. All of those three kinds of airplanes interest me a lot since I got to know them long time ago. Before I started the journey from Rolla, MO to New York City, I decided to visit the museum and take pictures of those planes if I had opportunity to stop at Dayton.

In the early morning of Jan. 14, my friend and I stopped at a motel in Dayton after around 500 miles ride. After a rest, around 11 o’clock we left the inn for the museum. We supposed to reach the site in minutes, but my friend missed an exit on the highway. When we got to the place, it was almost 11:30. Along the Springfield St., near the Harshman Rd., a symbol made of a plane in front of a series of hangars came into my eyes as seen below.

Fig. 1 Symbol of the museum

We continued driving the car following the road, and then we saw a huge concrete wall with the museum’s name.

Fig. 2 Concrete wall with the name of the museum

After having turned right at the corner, some aircrafts exhibited on the field could be seen, such as the retired USAF Lockheed C-141C Starlifter.

Fig. 3 Lockheed C-141C Starlifter

Due to limited time, I directly went to Modern Flight Gallery(including Korea War and Southeast Asia War), where F-22A is shown. In fact I do not know why the museum put the most advanced fighter in this gallery.

Fig. 4 Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor

Thus, I entered the Cold War Gallery, where I took a lot of pictures. In this building, almost all the aircrafts in service could be found except for F-22A and some unmanned aircrafts. In the museum, it was very crowded. In addition, I brought a long focus lense with me. The above picture of F-22A looks fine, but as for B-2A, only part of the aircraft could be taken into the lense.

Fig. 5 Northrop B-2A Spirit

Fig. 6 Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk

Except for those stealth fighters or bombers, I also took pictures of some other aircrafts, such as F-15, F-16A, A-10A, B-1B, SR-71, and Mig-29A. Last year when I went to tour the Intrepid Aircraft Carrier, I have taken a picture of F-16, actually which was borrowed from this museum I visited this time. But I am not sure whether they are the same one or not. The picture of SR-71 is very blur, then I won’t upload here. It is very easy to recognize the tank killer, A-10A.

Fig. 7 McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

Fig. 8 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

Fig. 9 Fairchild Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II

Fig. 10 Rockwell B-1B Lancer

I was surprise to see Mig-29A, a former Soviet Union two engine light fighter in the museum. In Jun 1989, a Mig-29 crashed while doing a high-performance aerobatic routine at the Paris Air Show. The most impressive thing is that the pilot was saved by the great rocket ejector since the chute didn’t open due to the low elevation since the fighter fell into two pieces and then hit on the ground3.

Fig. 11 Mikoyan MiG-29

The 30 minute tour could never satisfy me at all. Before I left the museum, I talked to an assistant in the Cold War Gallery and explained the reason why I had such a quick tour. Also, I told him that sometime later I will make a long visit to the biggest military aviation museum in the world.


1. National Museum of the United States Air Force(official website).

2. National Museum of the United States Air Force(wikipedia).

3. MIG-29 Crashes at Paris Air Show Pilot Ejects From Soviet Fighter Plane Before Jet Explodes.

Will China’s Economy Back 100 Years if Involved the Korean Conflicts?

Ten days ago, it was reported that Gernal Burwell Baxter Bell, the former commander of the United States Forces Korea (USFK) on Friday called for powerful military retaliation to future provocations by North Korea and a temporary ban on all engagements with the regime to punish it for its recent deadly attack on a South Korean island1. He also emphasized that six-party talks as a way of taming the belligerency of North Korea have failed and should be replaced by tougher military responses and economic embargoes and hard stand should be the only option2. But in a report in Chinese and Korean, General Bell once said that if China took part in the war on the Korean peninsula, China will back to 100 years ago3~5. Shortly after, the news propagated over Chinese websites, especially a famous Chinese media Global Times6. The response from Chinese netizens is quick and strong. Also, some personnel related to PLA or belong to PLA strongly criticized the warning7,8. General Peng responded that if China falls back to 100 years ago, the U.S. should be prepared to fall back 200 years9. Now Korean media began talking about Peng’s words10.

Former USFK commander Burwell Bell speaks at a security forum in Seoul on Dec. 3. (Yonhap1)

I have no comments on Generals words, but I think it is very strange that General Bell’s warning on China’s involvement in Korean conflicts started from Korean media in Korean and Chinese. I could not find any English version of his words. Also, no video could be found on the internet. I guess that is a rumor created by Korean media. It is not very difficult to find out why they did that. But I cannot understand why US would allow they do such a stupid thing. It is time for US to do something to rein South Korea.

BTW, one more funny thing is that Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan plans to send troops to the Korean Peninsula if a war break out, which has been dismissed by South Korea11. Japan government is insistently over warmhearted on others’ land.  At the end of this post, I wanna say please do not forget from Dec.13, 1937, Imperial Japanese Army killed more than 300,000 Chinese civilians and POWs, and raped thousands of women, which is called Nanking Massacre.


1. Former USFK chief urges ‘asymmetric’ retaliation for future N.K. provocations.
2. Bell: hard stand is only option.
3. The only option, powerful military retaliation to future provocations by North Korea(in Chinese, 应对朝鲜挑衅 除了武力报复之外别无他途).
4. Bell, the former commander of United States Forces Korea, said, use of forces as a solution to North’s provocations(in Korean, “北 도발 해법은 무력사용뿐” 벨 前주한미군사령관 ).
5. No alternative options other than military retaliation to North’s further provocations(in Korean, “北 추가도발시 무력보복외 대안없어”).
6. The former commander of USFK told Korean media, If China involved the Korean conflicts, it will back to 100 years ago (in Chinese, 驻韩美军前司令答韩媒:中国参战将被打回100年前).
7. Luo Yuan: China’s involvement in the Korean conflict if the U.S. would be “100-year nightmare”.
8. General Peng Guangqian talked the US-Japan joint military drills and the security situations in northeast Asia(in Chinese, 彭光谦谈美日联合军演及东北亚安全局势).
9. Chinese Envoy Rejects Call to Rein in N.Korea .
10. After North’s provocation on Yeongpyeong Island, if China retreated 100 years, its opponent should retreat 200 years(in Korean, <北 연평도 도발 이후>“전쟁으로 中 100년 후퇴땐 상대방은 200년 후퇴할 것”).
11. Seoul dismisses Japan PM’s comment on troop dispatch .

Artillery Barrages between Koreas

According to media from South Korea, North Korea fired artillery onto Yeonpyeong Island, which locates in the disputed area between the North Limit Line by South Korea and US and North Korean Military Demarcation Line on West Sea or Yellow Sea on Nov. 23rd1. It is believed that the Hoguk Exercise (호국훈련, National Protection Exercise) in the disputed areas triggered the incident2. Before the military drill, DPRK has condemned the annual exercise and warned they would fire shots2. Since the South explained the exercise is a routine one, a military activity in disputed areas should be controversial. It is reported that South Korea lost 4 (including 2 civilians) and injured 19 (including 3 civilians)3. The casualties and losses from North Korea are unknown till now.

Fig. 1 Disputed Maritime Demarcation Line between Koreas1

Fig. 2 People watch as plumes of smoke rise up from buildings on South Korea’s Yeonpueong island after North Korea fired hundreds of artillery rounds4

Fig. 3 CCTV captures the moment a shell lands on the island4

Fig. 4 A South Korean marine walks through destroyed houses on Yeonpyeong (Photograph: Lee Jin-Man/AP)5

Before the current president of South Korea took the power, the relationship between Koreas was smooth and stable. As we know, North Korea is developing its nuclear power, and the explosion could be regarded as one from atomic bomb. Just before the artillery barrages, a report by Dr. Siegfried S. Hecker stated that North Korea has a modern, clean centrifuge plant of more than 1000 centrifuges all neatly aligned at the country’s Yongbyon nuclear complex and could make two nuclear bombs per year6. One more fact that we could not ignore is that the low living standard in Korea. Thus, we can concluded that North Korea develops mass destruction weapons without considering the starving people. Hold on, please. Here is a question. Why Kim spent so much on the weapon? Killing Chinese? No, I do not think so. Killing Korean? Maybe. Japanese? Possible. American? How? If there was no troops in South Korea, I believe it is hardly for North Korea to attack Washington. Frequent military exercise near or in the Korean Peninsula made the area very sensitive. During the Korean war in the mid 20th century, the threatens of atomic bombs from US on China and Korea were the motivations to develop the nuclear weapons for their own. After China successfully tested its first atomic bomb in 1964, the Communist government claimed that China undertakes not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones at any time or under any circumstances7. North Korea needs a secure environment to develop its economy, while the aggressive President Lee Myungbak and the US troops in South Korea made the wish less possible. Now US and other countries press China to rein in North Korea to prevent further provocative incidents such as the deadly artillery attack on a South Korean island close to the border8. On the other hand, US deployed the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73) and four other US Navy (USN) warships to the West Sea (Yellow Sea)9 and began a joint military exercise with South Korea within a broad range which covers 34 degrees 30 minutes north latitude to 36 degrees to 125 degrees east longitude 124 degrees 42 minutes announced by South Korea’s National Oceanographic Research Institute on Nov. 2710. The location of the joint exercise is close to China and North Korea, since it is sort of far from the disputed area10. North Korea has condemned the 4-day war games bring the divided peninsula “closer to the brink of war”11. China started a series of diplomatic activities to ease the tensions, such sending senior officials to Koreas11, exchanging ideas with related countries12, and calling for emergency 6-way talk13. Recently, Wikileaks released US diplomatic cable including the attitude of China on Koreas14. The joint military exercise is to make the situation more complex and worse. President Lee Myung-bak is very confident about the military forces of South Korea, but if North Korea showers Seoul with artillery rounds and rockets, there are predictions that half of the capital will be destroyed in just a day15. It seems that what Lee has done at the risk of millions of South Korean’s lives. The unification of Koreas should be a long term process provided that North Korea could develop its economy and democracy under a stable environment. Otherwise, it is a disaster for all the people in Northeast Asia, especially for China and Koreas. US government and President Lee Myung-bak should abandon the strong and unrealistic policy to North Korea, and drag the Korea Peninsula back onto the right track to peace and denuclearization.


  1. Dispatch: North Korea Shells a South Korean Island.
  2. N.Korea fires artillery shells toward Yeonpyeong Island, killing two marines.
  3. Bombardment of Yeonpyeong.
  4. Korea on the brink: South warns of retaliation after North’s shellfire strike kills two marines.
  5. South Korea cancels Yeonpyeong island drills.
  6. North Korea could make two nuclear bombs per year.
  7. China’s National Statement on Security Assurance.
  8. US to press China to rein in North Korea after attack.
  9. US sends aircraft carrier to Yellow Sea following North Korean attacks.
  10. U.S. military exercises in South Korea Yellow Sea in Shandong sailing 170 kilometers away from the warning is announced.
  11. US-South Korea Joint Naval Show Sparks High Voltage Tension.
  12. Peace & the Koreas.
  13. China Calls For Six-Party Talk With N. Korea.
  14. China frustrated with North Korea: WikiLeaks.
  15. Gov’t Mulls Turning Baeknyeong into Forward Deployment Base.

Traffic Jams, Automobiles, Oil and Gas, and Alternative Energy

Recently, the traffic jams in Beijing trouble the capital of People’s Republic of China, with intensity1. I had the experience of traffic jams in Beijing. Under such kind of dituations, the highways seemed to be a huge parking lot. Now people, including me, call Beijing as Top Jams (pronounced as shou 3 du 3 in Chinese) instead of capital (pronounced as shou 3 du 1). The traffic jams happened intenser and more frequently due to the increasing private cars, especially in the severe weather and holiday seasons2, 3. The monster traffic jam in mid-August make the capital seem to be a huge parking lot4, 5. Shai Oster stated that Beijing considers car limits to fight for the traffic jams in his blog6, actually the policy has been implemented for years. Starting in 2008, Beijing authorities started to limit the cars on road through having the drivers leave theirs at home once a week based on the last digit of the license plate6.. The problem is that some of the owner could buy the second car to avoid the limitation. That is not the only tradition Chinese have. Above I mentioned that the holiday seasons made the traffic jams worse. Each year, Chunyun (transportation in Spring Festivals) could move more than 2 billion people times7. This year, Beijing fell into its most severe traffic jam around mid-Autumn festival season3. According to Beijing Municipal Traffic Committee, the Beijing municipal government would invest 80 billion RMB in 2009 on transportation infrastructure construction to solve the traffic problems8. Obviously the construction has not solved the problem, yet. Actually, in my opinion, simply increasing the investment in transportation construction will never work, especially with the current urban planning and increasing cars.

The increases of private cars also push up the oil price. According to International Energy Agency outlook, the oil peak will not reach until 2035, and drives the oil price over $200 per barrel by 2035, equivalent to $113 in 2009 real dollars9. The demand by China is projected to account for 39% of rising energy demand and 57% of rising oil demand9. Kevin Clarke said that China does not have to take any lessons from America on consumption because the planet could not support the 1.3 billion people have the same standard living level as current Americans have10.The attitude is so negative that I could not agree with at all. We could not wait the day after tomorrow coming without any efforts. The alternative energy resources could solve the problem? I am highly doubting it. In fact I have some advices on how to deal with such a situation.

  1. Developing the public transportation with alternative energy resources.
  2. Limiting the private cars, especially with fossil fuel.
  3. Increasing the consumption tax on oil and gas.
  4. Lowering the gap between conventional and alternative energy prices.
  5. Improving the technology and energy efficiency
  6. Reducing the energy consumption.


  1. Beijing traffic jams only growing.
  2. Beijing roads choked by 140 traffic jams in a day.
  3. Traffic Jams In Beijing Reach New Records Of Congestion.
  4. Beijing: World’s Biggest Parking Lot.
  5. China Traffic Jam Could Last Weeks.
  6. Beijing, Fighting Traffic, Considers Car Limits.
  7. Chunyun.
  8. Beiijng strives to solve traffic problems.
  9. International Energy Agency says ‘peak oil’ has hit. Crisis averted?
  10. Take the next exit: Avoid an economic traffic jam.

Diaoyu Islands

Diaoyu (means fishing in Chinese) Islands, which is called Senkaku Islands by Japanese, became the focus since early this September because of the collisions of Chinese fishing boat and Japanese Coast Guard patrol vessels near the Diaoyu Islands on Sep. 8th1. After the collision, the crew and the fishing boat was detained by Japanese Coast Guard2.The relationship between the two countries fell down to historical low level. After Japan freed the 14 crew members on Sep. 13th3, and released the illegally arrested captain, Zhan Qixiong, who was accused of obstructing Japanese public officers while they performed their duties4, on Sep. 24th5. The unofficial meeting of Prime Ministers6 and Defense Ministers7 eased the bilateral tensions a little bit after, but which was tightened again because of the anti-Japan protests in several cities, such as Chengdu8, Zhengzhou9, Xi’an10, Wuhan11, etc., in China recently and the right-wing forces protests in Japan last Saturday12.

The Diaoyu Islands could be traced back to more than 600 years ago on the books such as Voyage with a Tail Wind and Record of the Imperial Envoy’s Visit to Ryukyu13. From that moment until late Tsing Dynasty, China Central government had the sovereignty of Ryukyu Kingdom, with the frequent tributary envoys of Ryukyu Kingdom to China and official missions of central government to Ryukyu14. Diaoyu Islands locate on the way between the mainland and the Ryukyu Islands. Hayashi Shihei listed Diaoyu Islands when he introduced Ryukyu Kingdom in his book Sangoku Trsuran Zusetsu (An Illustrated Description of Three Countries), which was published in the year of 1786. After having occupied Ryukyu Kingdom in 1872, Japan tried to take it over, but failed in 1885. Near the end of the first Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied Diaoyu Islands in the early 1895. China ceded to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty of the Penghu group and Taiwan according to the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The Japanese name of Diaoyu Islands, Senkaku Islands, was translated from its English name, Pinnacle Islands13.

Before the end of World War II, the Postdam Declaration defined the sovereignty of Japan as islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as US, UK and China determined15.  In 1951, Article 2 of the Treaty of Peace with Japan signed by Japan and the Allied Powers (excluding both the ROC and the PRC) at San Francisco stated that, “Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa (another name of Taiwan coined by Dutch invaders but not confirmed by PRC, the only valid government of China) and the Paracels”16. Article 4 of the separate peace treaty signed between Japan and the ROC in 1952 declared that all agreements between Japan and China before 1941 were null and void16. As stated above, Diaoyu Islands should be reasonably returned to China as a part of Taiwan16. However, Japan insisted that it found the islands first and they should not be included in the above treaties16. The hypothesis of hydrocarbon deposits in the waters off the Diaoyu Islands suggested by ECAFE (United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East) in 1969 sparkled the Diaoyu Islands issue, which remained quiet through 1950s and 1960s16. In accordance with the Okinawa Reversion Treaty signed between the US and Japan in 1969, it included that the Diaoyu Islands, since then Japan insists repeatedly that the islet group is part of Japan’s territory17. In fact, the act of take over the Ryukyu or Okinawa between the US and the Japan based on the treaty was refused by PRC, because of the sovereignty of Ryukyu is belong to China18. Also, the Diaoyu Islands is part of China announced by both PRC and ROC19~21. More details could be found in the following two articles, Islands’ sovereignty indisputable, and Defending Diaoyu Islands Campaign Re-upsurge: Why Diaoyu Islands is Chinese Territory?(Chinese).


  1. Zhan Qixiong.
  2. Collision with Chinese fishing boat and Japanese patrol boat near Senkaku Islands.
  3. Japan frees 14 crew members of Chinese ship after collision near disputed islets.
  4. Japan rejects apology on China boat row.
  5. Japan releases Chinese fishing boat captain.
  6. Kan, Wen Meet in Brussels.
  7. hinese defense chief urges Japan to properly handle sensitive issues.
  8. Anti-Japan Demonstration Ignites Chengdu(photos+video).
  9. Thousands in China, Japan rally over island claims.
  10. China: Anti-Japan demonstrations erupt in three cities.
  11. Anti-Japan Protests Enter Third Day in China With Wuhan Rally, Kyodo Says.
  12. “Thank you for waking us up, China” demonstration in downtown Tokyo.
  13. Senkaku Islands.
  14. Ryūkyū Kingdom.
  15. Postdam Declaration.
  16. Diaoyu Islands Dispute.
  17. Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands.
  18. Modern Okinawa.
  19. China rejects Japan’s sovereignty claim over Senkaku Islands.
  20. Look Out for the Diaoyu Islands.
  21. Senkakus part of China, not Japan.